Our review is organized as follows: In $ 2, we return to the starting point of modern magnetic monopole theory by describing the way in which Dirac (1931) introduced magnetic monopoles. Our treatment will be more detailed in some respects; we will pay particular attention to some interesting lessons that can be learned from his work, namely (a) the theory of high invariant fields can accommodate line singularities in vector potentials fairly consistently This point is largely ignored in quantum field theory; (b) in the presence of a monopole, an orbital angular momentum must be added to obtain a conserved quantity; (c) the existence of a monopole The possibility of changing the overall structure of the electromagnetic gauge group effectively makes it a compact group U (1). If the charge operator Q is a generator of a non-Abelian compact gauge group, this gauge group is spontaneously destroyed by an asymmetric vacuum and becomes the electromagnetic U (1) subgroup generated by Q, then this gauge group is equivalent Quantization of Charge.
Overview of magnetic column level gauge:
Magnetic column level gauge is also called magnetic plate level gauge, and its structure is mainly designed and produced based on the principle of buoyancy and magnetic force. It is a product that our factory introduces and absorbs similar foreign products, and absorbs, digests, and improves. It is produced in accordance with the magnetic level gauge standard HG / T21584-95 issued by the former Ministry of Chemical Industry. It can be used for medium level detection of dry towers, tanks, tanks, spherical vessels and boilers. This series of magnetic liquid level gauges can achieve high sealing, leak-proof, and are suitable for liquid level measurement of high pressure, high temperature, and corrosive media. It is reliable and safe. It makes up for the unclear and easy indication of the glass plate (tube) liquid level. The lack of fragmentation is not affected by high and low temperature sharp bends, and it does not require the combination of multiple groups of level gauges. There is no blind zone during the whole process measurement, the display is conspicuous, the reading is intuitive, and the measurement range is large, especially the on-site indication part, because it does not directly contact the liquid medium, so it is more visible for high temperature, high pressure, high degree of adhesion, toxic, harmful, and strong corrosive media Its superiority. Therefore, it has higher reliability, safety, advancement and practicability than the traditional glass tube and plate level gauge. The position of the float with a magnet in the magnetic flip column level gauge (magnetic float for short) in the measured medium is affected by buoyancy. The change of the liquid level leads to the change of the position of the magnetic float, and the coupling of the magnetostatic force of the magnetic float and the magnetic flip (also known as the magnetic flip plate) causes the magnetic flip to flip a certain angle (the surface of the magnetic flip is coated with different colors), and then reflects The liquid level in the container. Cooperating with electronic modules and transmitter modules composed of sensors (reed switches) and precision electronic components, it can transmit and output resistance value signals, current value (4-20mA) signals, switching signals and other electrical signals. In order to achieve the perfect combination of field observation and remote control.
Scope and characteristics of magnetic column level gauge:
This liquid level gauge is based on the similar products at home and abroad, actively absorbs and combines the advantages of many products, and is carefully designed by the company's technical staff. With better magnets and imported electronic components, the product has the advantages of reasonable design, simple structure, convenient use, stable performance, long service life, and easy installation and maintenance. At the same time, with the change of market demand, the company's products are constantly achieving the upgrading of quality technology and improvement of production technology, broadening the application field and scope of application of this level gauge. In addition, the output signal of this level gauge is various, which can realize long-distance level indication, detection, control and recording.
1. Suitable for the measurement of the liquid level and boundary level of the liquid medium in the container. In addition to on-site instructions, it can be equipped with remote transmitters, alarm switches, control switches, and complete detection functions.
2. The indication is novel, the reading is intuitive, eye-catching, and the direction of the observation indicator can be changed according to the user's needs.
3. Large measurement range, not limited by the height of the storage tank.
4. The indicating mechanism is completely isolated from the measured medium, so it has good sealing, high reliability and safe use.
5. Simple structure, easy installation and low maintenance cost.
6. Corrosion resistance, no power supply required, explosion-proof.
Technical parameters of magnetic column level gauge:
Level control (alarm) switch
Up and down alarm
Digital display instrument
304 lined with PTFE
g / cm3
With steam jacket
-80 ~ + 10 ℃
-10 ~ + 120 ℃
-10 ~ + 250 ℃
-10 ~ + 350 ℃
| Drain valve |
| Level Switch |
| 4 ～ 20mA two-wire transmitter |
| Flameproof: dIIBT4 |
| Intrinsically Safe: ibIICT4 |
| With isolation barrier |
| XGTH-510 (vertical) display adjustment alarm |
| XGTA-810 (horizontal) display adjustment alarm |
| Vacuum jacket |
| Measuring range (mm) |
| Medium density (g / cm3) |
| Working pressure (MPa) |
Working principle of magnetic column level gauge:
The bypass tube is extended on the outside of the tank. A liquid level indicator is installed outside the bypass tube. The floating ball with the magnet is placed in the bypass tube. When the float rises, it will attract the magnetic color film to flip, and the color of the magnetic film will change from white to red (or silver to gold) to indicate the actual liquid level. China Hardware Business Network
Magnetic Flip Column Level Gauge Installation
1. The magnetic flap level gauge body is not allowed to have magnetic conductive material around it. Iron wire fixing is prohibited.
2. The installation must be vertical. Ball valves should be installed between the guide tubes of the magnetic level liquid level gauge container to facilitate maintenance and cleaning.
3. Before use, the small balls below the zero position should be set to red with the correction magnetic steel, and the other balls should be set to white;
4. The medium should not contain solid impurities or magnetic substances, so as not to cause jams to the float;
5. Open the bottom flange and install the magnetic float (Note: the heavy end with the magnetic end is up and cannot be inverted.);
6. According to the condition of the medium, the main pipe should be cleaned from time to time to remove impurities;
7. For liquid level gauges that exceed a certain length (ordinary type> 3 meters, anti-corrosion type> 2 meters), the intermediate reinforcement flange or ears need to be added for fixed support to increase strength and overcome their own weight
8. The installation position of the magnetic flap liquid level gauge should avoid or stay away from the inlet and outlet of the material medium to avoid rapid changes in the local area of the material fluid, which affects the accuracy of the liquid level measurement;
9. When equipped with remote transmission supporting instruments, the following should be done:
(1) The remote transmission supporting instrument should be close to the main pipe of the level gauge, and fixed with stainless steel hoop (disable iron magnetic permeability);
(2) The sensing surface on the remote transmission supporting instrument should face and close to the main duct;
(3) The zero position of the remote supporting instrument should be on the same level line as the zero indication of the level gauge;
(4) The connection between the remote transmission supporting instrument and the display instrument or industrial control computer should be laid separately through a protective tube or a shielded two-core cable;
(5) After laying the wire entry hole of the junction box, it is required to be well sealed to prevent the invasion of remote transmission equipment from working normally due to the invasion of rainwater and moisture. The junction box should be covered in time after the maintenance or commissioning is completed.
Structure principle of magnetic column level gauge
The level gauge is developed based on the principle of buoyancy and magnetic coupling. When the liquid level in the tested container rises and falls, the magnetic float in the liquid level gauge body tube also rises and falls. The permanent magnetic steel in the float is transmitted to the magnetic flip indicator through magnetic coupling, which drives the red and white flip to flip 180. ¡ã, when the liquid level rises, the flip column changes from white to red, when the liquid level drops, the flip column changes from red to white, and the red and white junction of the indicator is the actual height of the liquid level inside the container, so that the liquid level is clear Instructions.
A. Basic type:
Measuring range: 300 ～ 15000mm Measuring accuracy: ¡À 5.0mm, ¡À 10mm
Working temperature: -40 ～ 250 ℃ (ABS PP-R, PVC: -40 ～ 80 ℃) Special type can reach 450 ℃
Working pressure: ≤ 2.5MPa (more than 2.5MPa can be set separately) Anticorrosive type ≤ 0.6MPa
Medium viscosity: ≤1st (10-4m2 / s) Medium density: ≥450kg / m3
Medium density difference: ≥ 150kg / m3 Sewage interface: ZG1 / 2 "(inside)
Ambient vibration: frequency ≤ 25Hz, amplitude ≤ 0.5mm following speed: ≤ 0.08m / s
Wetted material: stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti, 316, 316L)
Stainless steel lined with PTFE (1Cr18Ni9Ti lined with PTFE,)
PVC plastic (polyvinyl chloride), PP-R, ABS
Connection process: side-mounted HG20592-97 DN25 PN4.0 (or user specified)
Top-mounted HG20592-97 DN100 PN1.6 (or user specified)
Jacket flange HG20592-97 DN15 PN1.6 (or user specified)
B. Remote transmission device:
Output signal: 4 ～ 20mA Load impedance: 350Ω (at 24VDC)
Power supply: 18 ～ 30VDC (rated 24VDC) Ambient temperature: -40 ～ 80 ℃
Relative humidity: ≤90% RH Power consumption: 0.5W
Intrinsically Safe: ibIICT4 Flameproof: dIIBT4
C. Control alarm switch output type: normally open normally closed switch signal alarm accuracy: + 10mm
Ambient temperature: -40 ～ 80 ℃ Working life: ≥105 times Outlet interface: M20? 1.5 or internal thread
Magnetic turn column level gauge selection mark
| Structural features || Wetted material || Temperature (℃) || Pressure (MPa) || Density (g / cm 3 ) || Appearance |
| normal type || 304 || 120 || 2.5 || ≥0.85 || figure 1 |
| Medium and high pressure type || 304 || 120 || 4.0 ~ 32 || ≥0.85 || figure 2 |
| High temperature type || 304 || 450 || 2.5 || ≥0.85 || figure 2 |
| Corrosion-resistant || RPP || 100 || 1.6 || ≥0.95 || image 3 |
| Strong corrosion resistance || 304 lined with PTFE || 120 || 2.5 || ≥0.95 || Figure 4 |
| Jacket insulation type || 304 || 120 || 2.5 || ≥0.85 || Figure 5 |
| Low temperature anti-frost type || 304 || -80 || 2.5 || ≥0.85 || figure 1 |
| Lighter than heavy || 304 || 120 || 2.5 || ≥0.45 || figure 1 |
Anticorrosive magnetic plate level gauge
Acid and alkali resistant magnetic plate level gauge
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4-20mA output magnetic flap level gauge
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